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Home > Catalog > Pain - Spontaneous pain - Postural deficit
(Model: BIO-DWB-M - For mice)
The advanced version of our Dynamic Weight Bearing Test allows for faster paw identification, based on a video solution taking advantage of the most advanced algorithms of morphologic analysis in dynamic conditions. An efficient and advanced alternative to traditional incapacitance tests for assessing pain sensitivity in your research on analgesia/nociception involving rats and mice, including work on ostheoarthritis, bone cancer, analgesic substances, Parkinson disease, allodynia...

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! NEW RESEARCH WORK ! A recent publication by S Cornet, C P in "Toxicon: X" highlights the merits of using Bioseb's Dynamic Weight Bearing 2.0: The use of the dynamic weight bearing test to assess the effects of acute, intramuscularly administered botulinum neurotoxin type A1 in rats

The use of the dynamic weight bearing test to assess the effects of acute, intramuscularly administered botulinum neurotoxin type A1 in rats
S Cornet, C P
Neuroscience Therapeutic Area, Ipsen Innovation, 5 Avenue du Canada, 91940, Les Ulis, France.
Published in "Toxicon: X" (2020-05-23)

Assessing the efficacy of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) in vivo is essential given the growing number of BoNT products used in the clinic. Here, we evaluated the dynamic weight bearing (DWB) test for sensitivity to paralytic effects of BoNT-A following intramuscular administration. The toxin was administered into the gastrocnemius lateralis as a single bolus or into the gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis as two boluses. The effects of BoNT-A in DWB were compared to those in the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and the Digit Abduction Score (DAS) tests. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received an acute, intramuscular (i.m.) injection of BoNT-A1 (0.1, 1, 10 pg/rat) into the right gastrocnemius muscle, while the left received vehicle. The DWB and CMAP tests were performed one-two days after the injection in order to detect the onset of sub-maximal BoNT-A activity. Both tests were preceded by the DAS test. BoNT-A produced dose-related reductions in both the weight-bearing and surface-bearing outcomes of up to 60% while showing moderate activity in the DAS. BoNT-A effects in the DWB test were well-aligned with those in the CMAP test, which showed dose-dependent reductions in CMAP amplitude and the area under the curve (AUC; up to 100%) as well as increases in latency (up to 130%). The efficacy of BoNT-A in DWB and CMAP was more pronounced with two boluses. Thus, the DWB test can be used to assess the properties of BoNTs following i.m. administration. It can be used to assess the candidate therapies and is more ethical than the mouse lethality assay.
Version history

• 2006 - Incapacitance Test / Static Weight Bearing (SWB) : The first instrument measuring spontaneous pain for your research on nociception and analgesia. Our system allows you to measure the weight distribution of a rodent comfortably maintained on its hind paws in a dedicated holder.
• 2008 - Basic Dynamic Weight Bearing test (BDWB): This new instrument allows you to measure the weight distribution on all four paws without a restrainer.
• 2011 - Advanced Dynamic Weight Bearing test (ADWB): A new software version of the DWB allowing video tracking of the animal for running the test semi-automatically
• 2018 - Dynamic Weight Bearing test 2.0 (DWB2): New 3-tab software with improved automation behavior and major, new, innovative functionalities.


Advanced Dynamic Weight Bearing test, by Bioseb - Detail with a mouse
Advanced Dynamic Weight Bearing test
Detail with a mouse
Ethical considerations as well as the necessity to study comfort and evoked pain levels on rodents lead to the development of tests and procedures allowing researchers to conduct pain assessment without having to apply a stimulus on the animals. These tests, called "Incapacitance" tests, measure the weight distribution on both hind paws of rodents maintained in a restrainer. Restraining, however, induced higher level of stress for the test subjects.

Since its launching in 2008, Bioseb's Dynamic Weight Bearing test is the only rodent evoked pain test not requiring animal restraint. It is also the only instrument allowing you to precisely measure changes in Postural Equilibrium in rodents by assessing their weight distribution on each one of their 4 paws.

Bioseb's DBW thus allows you to work with freely moving animals in a transparent cage adapted to the animal being tested (rats or mice). This unique characteristic significantly reduces restrainer-induced stress levels and therefore greatly increases the reliability of the results.

This instrument, after having been validated in over thirty publications, has enabled researchers to answer numerous interrogations pertaining to non-evoked pain models, as well as neuropathic, inflammatory or osteoarthritic conditions. More recently, the application framework of our DWB (Dynamic Weight Bearing) has been extended: the instrument is not only a must-have for pain models, but its postural analysis ability has proven to be an ideal tool for studies on skeletal diseases (fractures, cancers, arthritis...), CNS (Central Nervous System) pathologies, as well as diseases connected to the vestibular system (vertigo).

Operating principles

The animal is placed into the DWB (Dynamic Weight Bearing) enclosure for a duration of approximately 5 minutes.

During the test, the DWB relies on two different technologies :

• A matrix comprising around 2000 high precision force sensors (0.02 g for mice and 0.15 g for rats): this matrix is embedded in the floor of the enclosure where the animal is free to move as it pleases. The force sensors measure the weight distribution on each of the four paws of the animal in grams. The instrument uses different sensors for rats or mice in order to provide a suitable sensitivity level (0-4g for mice and 0-40g for rats).

• Video monitoring : the animal is filmed from above using a high definition camera. The video feed is analyzed in real-time during the test thanks to our tracking software allowing a precise analysis of the animal's posture.

Our software can accurately analyze the animal's position during the entire duration of the test in order to automatically identify the location of each of the four paws on the force sensors.

Data acquisition from the force sensors and the camera happens at a high frequency (30 Hz): the DWB is able to analyze rapid position changes, thus providing complete measurements allowing a precise tracking of postural evolutions in moving or still rodents.

New DWB2 Dynamic Weight Bearing Test - Software screenshot – Analysis page
New DWB2 Dynamic Weight Bearing Test
Software screenshot – Analysis page

New DWB2 Dynamic Weight Bearing Test<BR>Software screenshot – Results page
New DWB2 Dynamic Weight Bearing Test
Software – Results page
New functionalities

The new DWB2 version offers unprecedented improvements increasing both speed and software user experience while optimizing results accuracy and reliability.

The DWB2 software sports a new 3-tab interface. With its faster and more intuitive interface, it will be a breeze to use for all the operators in your lab.

The sensors sampling rate has been increased to 30 measurements per second. Results are more comprehensive and accurate, thus allowing you to determine all postural modifications of both moving and still animals.

We re-designed the automatic postural analysis algorithms to increase their precision. These algorithms are now supported by a complete database of pre-recorded postures recorded in both rats and mice. Data acquisition and analysis are greatly accelerated and more accurate.

A Trust Index has been implemented for automatic results analysis. This saves a lot of time for the operator who can then choose to either only retain data with a high trust index, or to proceed to a more in-depth manual analysis for lower trust indexes.

A group management module is now embedded in the software, as well as animal lists in order to follow GLP procedures and avoid errors, thus increasing results' reliability.

Furthermore, new improvements will soon be released. We are currently working on new computation parameters such as the support polygon (encompassing several data points pertaining to the distance between the paws and the position of the gravity center) as well as the BOS (Base or Support, or distance between both hind paws).

Measured parameters

• Weight for each paw (g and % total animal weight)
• Weight for grouped front and rear paws (g and %total animal weight)
• Left/Right and Front/Rear weight ratio
• Surface for each paw (mm²)
• Surface for grouped front and rear paws (mm²)
• Variability (standart deviation/mean) for each parameter
• Parameters are given for each posture and as a mean for the whole experiment
• Duration of different postures (4 paws, rearing…) over the whole experiment (s)
• Total time spent on each paw over the whole experiment (s)

Main functionalities

Advantages of our new Bioseb’s dynamic weight bearing system over static incapacitance systems
• Operator-independent
• Analyzes all four paws
• Time-saving
• Convenient for manipulating large numbers of rodents
• Unnecessary stress associated with restraint is eliminated

The new version of our Dynamic Weight Bearing Apparatus offers ground-breaking new functionalities:
• Experiment management: define experiment parameters, import a list of subjects and run the total experience. View and analyze subjects on an individual or group basis.
• Possibility to run longer experiments
• Record up to 30 measurements per second (better accuracy on animal positioning)
• Perform detailed analysis on immobility, mobility, or both conditions
• Improved scoring algorithm detecting 80% of the paws
• Special tool to validate video parameters
• Improved tools for scoring, undo/redo option, fusion , etc
• Coming soon: special model for guinea pigs
• Coming soon: new computation modules - support polygon & base of support

Applications for your research

Pain - Nociception/Analgesia
• Bone cancer models
• Neuropathic models
• Inflammation model
• Post surgery models
• Osteo-arthrisis models
• Arthrose models
• Pelvic pain models

• Peripheric ischemia
• Cerebrovascular accident models

• Spinal cord injuries recovery process

Other research applications
• Calcaneal tendon disease
• Crucial ligaments disease

Instrument versions and installation

All DWB1 users are eligible for an upgrade to the new DWB2 version. Your hardware is 100% compatible - a simple software upgrade will be required.

Acquisitions from the DWB1 can be analyzed using the DWB2 software in order to benefit from the new interface and powerful analysis modules.

The DWB is available in 3 different versions: RAT (BIO-DWB-AUTO-R), MICE (BIO-DWB-AUTO-M), RAT-MICE COMBO (BIO-DWB-AUTO-DU).
New Advanced Weight Bearing System for Mouse and Rat, by Bioseb: camera, cover, cage and animal
New Advanced Weight Bearing System for Mouse and Rat, by Bioseb: camera, cover, cage and animal

Publications (Click on an article to show details and read the abstract)

• PAIN •
- General pain -
• Redox regulation of soluble epoxide hydroxylase does not affect pain behavior in mice (2020)
Redox regulation of soluble epoxide hydroxylase does not affect pain behavior in mice
G Wack, P Eaton, A Schmidtko, W Kallenborn-Gerhardt
Institute of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Published in "Neuroscience Letters" (2020-01-30)

Signaling mediated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been reported to play an important role in pain processing. Previous studies revealed that sEH activity is inhibited by specific binding of electrophiles to a redox-sensitive thiol (Cys521) adjacent to the catalytic center of the hydrolase. Here, we investigated if this redox-dependent modification of sEH is involved in pain processing using “redox-dead” knockin-mice (sEH-KI), in which the redox-sensitive cysteine is replaced by serine. However, behavioral characterization of sEH-KI mice in various animal models revealed that acute nociceptive, inflammatory, neuropathic, and visceral pain processing is not altered in sEH-KI mice. Thus, our results suggest that redox-dependent modifications of sEH are not critically involved in endogenous pain signaling in mice.

• Methods Used to Evaluate Pain Behaviors in Rodents (2017)
Methods Used to Evaluate Pain Behaviors in Rodents
J.R. Deuis, L.S. Dvorakova, I. Vetter
Centre for Pain Research, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, QLD, Australia
Published in "Frontiers in molecular Neuroscience" (2017-09-06)

Rodents are commonly used to study the pathophysiological mechanisms of pain as studies in humans may be difficult to perform and ethically limited. As pain cannot be directly measured in rodents, many methods that quantify “pain-like” behaviors or nociception have been developed. These behavioral methods can be divided into stimulus-evoked or non-stimulus evoked (spontaneous) nociception, based on whether or not application of an external stimulus is used to elicit a withdrawal response. Stimulus-evoked methods, which include manual and electronic von Frey, Randall- Selitto and the Hargreaves test, were the first to be developed and continue to be in widespread use. However, concerns over the clinical translatability of stimulus-evoked nociception in recent years has led to the development and increasing implementation of non-stimulus evoked methods, such as grimace scales, burrowing, weight bearing and gait analysis. This review article provides an overview, as well as discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used behavioral methods of stimulus-evoked and non-stimulus-evoked nociception used in rodents.

- Mechanical allodynia & hyperlagesia -
• Comparison of evoked and non-evoked endpoints in a rodent pain model and potential relevance to non-evoked human pain. (2012)
Comparison of evoked and non-evoked endpoints in a rodent pain model and potential relevance to non-evoked human pain.
D. L. Li, M.P. Johnson, J.D. Kennedy et al.
Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, USA
Published in "Society for Neuroscience 2012" (2012-10-15)

The translational value of currently utilized animal pain models has been frequently debated ever since the clinical failure of the NK-1 antagonists. While there are a number of reasons underlying failed clinical trials, a concern often noted is that evoked endpoints in rodent pain models do not accurately reflect on-going (non-evoked) pain as is most often reported in the clinic. Here we compare standard evoked endpoint measurements, including thermal hyperalgesia (Hargreaves test) and mechanical hypersensitivity (Randall-Selitto test) to dynamic weight bearing using the BIOSEB automated system in the context of the Carrageenan model of acute inflammation. Dynamic weight bearing averages a series of measures over time, eliminating potential subjectivity associated with standard static weight bearing/incapacitance testing. Since this test does not involve a noxious stimulus, changes in the weight animals place on the injured paw may reflect the level of on-going pain. NSAIDs are standard-of-care drugs for mild/moderate inflammatory pain and as well are effective in reversing evoked pain endpoints in the Carrageenan model. Drug doses less than the minimally efficacy doses (MED) for reversing evoked thermal or mechanical hypersensitivity were able to reverse Carrageenan-induced weight bearing deficits. These doses/systemic exposure more closely match effective doses/systemic exposures used in the treatment of human inflammatory pain. The use of non-evoked pain model endpoints such as dynamic weight bearing can provide a valuable means for evaluating on-going pain as part of a comprehensive behavioral pain model screening paradigm.

• Polyamine deficient diet to relieve pain hypersensitivity. (2008)
Polyamine deficient diet to relieve pain hypersensitivity.
C. Rivat, P. Richebé, E. Laboureyras, J.-P. Laulin, R. Havouis et al.
UMR CNRS 5227, “Mouvement-Adaptation-Cognition”, Team “Homéostasie-Allostasie-Pathologie-Réhabilitation”, Bordeaux, France.
Published in "Pain" (2008-06-30)

There is a compelling body of evidence that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R) play a critical role in the development and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity. However, long-term treatments with NMDA-R antagonists are limited by unacceptable side effects. Since polyamines modulate the functioning of NMDA-R and mainly originate from normal dietary intake and bacterial metabolism in the gut, we developed a nutritional therapy based on dietary polyamine deficiency. Here, we reported that a polyamine deficient diet (PD diet) for 7 days prevented the enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation of the spinal NR2B subunit-containing NMDA-R associated with inflammation in rats. Based on these data, we studied the ability of PD diet to prevent long-lasting pain hypersensitivity associated with tissue injury on one hind paw by evaluating long-lasting changes in both mechanical nociceptive threshold and weight bearing. A PD diet strongly reduced long-lasting hyperalgesia induced by inflammation or incision, especially in fentanyl-treated rats. Moreover a PD diet also prevented the exaggerated hyperalgesia induced by a second inflammation performed 7 days after the first one. A PD diet also opposed paradoxical hyperalgesia induced by non-nociceptive environmental stress in rats with pain and opioid experiences. A PD diet reversed pain hypersensitivity associated with monoarthritis or neuropathy and restored the analgesic effect of morphine. Since PD diet was devoid of any noticeable side effects, this nutritional therapy could be part of an effective and safe strategy for pre-emptive analgesia and for reducing the transition from acute to chronic pain and its outcomes in various pain syndromes.

- Inflammatory pain -
• Modulation of the NGF–TRKA pathway for treatment of joint pain: preclinical in vivo evaluation in mice (2018)
Modulation of the NGF–TRKA pathway for treatment of joint pain: preclinical in vivo evaluation in mice
K. Ängeby Möller, P. Forsell, G. Nordvall, J. Sandin, C.I. Svensson
Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Published in "Osteoarthritis and Cartilage" (2018-04-01)

Chronic joint pain with pain at walking as major complaint affects a large portion of an aging population. Treatment options for this pain are insufficient, with side effects and less than full efficacy. Lack of predictive power for drug effects has been a major criticism against animal pain models and readouts. Using gait analysis and weight bearing in rats with monoarthritis induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA), we have previously shown effects when interfering with the cyclooxygenase (COX) and nerve growth factor (NGF) pathways, whereas a TRPV1 inhibitor was ineffective.

• Effects of Mollugo pentaphylla extract on monosodium urate crystal-induced gouty arthritis in mice (2017)
Effects of Mollugo pentaphylla extract on monosodium urate crystal-induced gouty arthritis in mice
YM Lee, EJ Shon, OS Kim, DS Kim
Korean Medicine Convergence Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, South Korea
Published in "BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine" (2017-09-06)

Gout is an inflammatory condition induced by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in joints and soft tissues, and it can lead to acute or chronic arthritis. MSU are pro-inflammatory stimuli that can initiate, amplify and sustain an intense inflammatory response. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of an extract of Mollugo pentaphylla (MPE) on MSU-induced gouty arthritis in a mouse model.
An MSU crystal suspension (4 mg/50 _L) was injected intradermally into the right paw. The mice were orally administered MPE (150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) or the positive control drug colchicine (1 mg/kg) 1 h before the MSU crystals were injected and then once daily for 3 days. The effects of MPE included inflammatory paw edema and pain upon weight-bearing activity, and we evaluated the inflammatory cytokine expression and paw tissue inflammation-related gene expression.
MPE suppressed inflammatory paw edema and pain in the MSU-induced mice. MPE showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the production of TNF-_, interleukin (IL)-1_, NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-_B.
These results suggest that MPE has potent anti-inflammatory activities and may be useful as a therapeutic agent against gouty arthritis.


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Pc requirement Windows 10, CPU : Intel 4 cores: 2.5 GHz, RAM : Min. 8 Gb, Display : Minimum 1920x1080.
Camera we provide a 640x 480 usb based camera high resolution delivered with its lens, the camera is fixed on the cover - when the settings are correct no need to adjust between animals
Versions available 3 versions: rat, mouse, combined rat+mouse

Dynamic Weight Bearing 2.0
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