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VETALGO:
ALGOMETER FOR BIG MAMMALS
(Model: BIO-VETALGO)
Designed for Veterinary Research and Veterinary Medicine, this wireless and non-invasive algometer is a quick and easy-to-use device for the assessment of Mechanical Nociceptive Threshold (MNT). Robust design and high-capacity sensor make it ideal for big mammals !

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! NEW RESEARCH WORK ! A recent publication by KW Chiu, J Hash, R Meyers, BDX Lascelles in "Scientific Reports" highlights the merits of using Bioseb's Vetalgo: Algometer for Big Mammals: The effect of spontaneous osteoarthritis on conditioned pain modulation in the canine model

The effect of spontaneous osteoarthritis on conditioned pain modulation in the canine model
KW Chiu, J Hash, R Meyers, BDX Lascelles
Comparative Pain Research and Education Centre, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, United States
Published in "Scientific Reports" (2020-02-03)


Endogenous Pain Modulation (EPM) impairment is a significant contributor to chronic pain. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) testing assesses EPM function. Osteoarthritic (OA) dogs are good translational models, but CPM has not been explored. Our aim was to assess EPM impairment in OA dogs compared to controls using CPM. We hypothesized that CPM testing would demonstrate EPM impairment in OA dogs compared to controls. Dogs with stifle/hip OA and demographically-matched controls were recruited. The pre-conditioning test stimulus, using mechanical/thermal quantitative sensory testing (MQST or TQST), were performed at the metatarsus. A 22N blunt probe (conditioning stimulus) was applied to the contralateral antebrachium for 2_minutes, followed by MQST or TQST (post-conditioning test stimulus). The threshold changes from pre to post-conditioning (deltaMQST and deltaTQST) were compared between OA and control dogs. Twenty-four client-owned dogs (OA, n_=_11; controls, n_=_13) were recruited. The deltaMQST(p_<_0.001) and deltaTQST(p_<_0.001) increased in control dogs but not OA dogs (deltaMQST p_=_0.65; deltaTQST p_=_0.76). Both deltaMQST(p_<_0.001) and deltaTQST(p_<_0.001) were different between the OA and control groups. These are the first data showing that EPM impairment is associated with canine OA pain. The spontaneous OA dog model may be used to test drugs that normalize EPM function.
Presentation

Bioseb's new Algometer for Big Mammals
Bioseb's new Algometer
for Big Mammals
3 different stimulator probes
Bioseb’s Vetalgo, or Algometer for Big Mammals, is a new pressure-based analgesimeter especially designed for big mammals. Delivered with a set of 3 different-size stimulators, the profile of mechanical stimulus and the application surface can be adapted to various animal’s size (horses, cats, dogs, pigs, sheep, calves) and to various testing sites : joints, vertebras, pelvic area, hoof, wound, soft tissue, muscle, horn, metatarsus, carpal pad etc.

Von Frey filaments are commonly used to quantify pain or to assess sensitivity, but this technique is time-consuming and does not avoid cross-contamination - moreover, it is limited to 300g of force. The full capacity of our Pressure Algometer being 5000g (ie. 50N), the device allows pain threshold measurement for most big mammals.

Veterinary studies, such as “Briley, J.D., et al. Feasibility and repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in normal dogs. The Veterinary Journal (2013), “show the importance of quantitative sensory testing (QST) to evaluate pain threshold in mammals with OA inflammation, pelvic pain or muscle-related troubles.

The repeatability and the validity of Bioseb’s "Vetalgo" Pressure Algometer have been demonstrated, and is now recommended as part of a multimodal and complete somatosensory evaluation set. It is a must on veterinary’s standard equipment for the improvement of Animal’s life quality.

Operating principle

Bioseb’s "Vetalgo" Pressure Algometer for big mammals is simple to operate : a Force-gauge display is equipped to an external stimulator. The assembly is mounted on an ergonomic handle, that fits both left-handed and right-handed investigators. The type of stimulator is to be chosen according to the application surface and the type of nociceptive stimulus to be applied.

After placing the animal on a safe position, a progressive force is applied by the investigator on the area of interest. The increasing stimulus is applied until a response from the animal is noticed, for example deliberate escape movement away from the device, vocalization, attempts to bite or to scratch the instrument, turning the look at the testing site, etc.

Both maximum and current MNT (Mechanical Nociceptive Threshold) values are shown on real-time on the large led screen of the display. The MNT value correspond the value at which the animal reacts, being the Max. value of Pressure application, in the standard steadily increasing procedure.

The measurement is accomplished using a highly accurate sensor of 5000g Max. Capacity and an electronic device offering a sampling rate of 1000 Hz. This ensures that the maximum force is perfectly captured and displayed, even for short and low force peaks – this allowing test of a wide range of animal’s pain sensitivity.

Measurements can be recorder and displayed in grams, Newtons, or lbs. The unit is directly selected on the keyboard. Data output is available through a RS232 port, a printer, or a graphic recorder. Individual measurements (up to 100) are stored in an internal memory, and can be downloaded after the experiment.

Key features

• Objective and immediate reading of Mechanical Nociceptive Threshold (MNT)
• Mechanical stimulus up to 50 N
• Certified repeatable and reliable values over time
• Single instrument for a wide animal range : interchangeable tips to fit to a wide range of animal’s size
• 3 stimulators, profiled for various mechanical stimulus type
• Wire-less device, works on rechargeable batteries
• Reduced size and ergonomic handle (fits left-handed and right-handed operators)
• Robust design for use in animal housing
• Delivered with disposable plastic tips and cleanable steel tips, no cross-contamination
• Low-price
Domains of application

Veterinary Medicine, Animal Welfare and Pain Release
• Part of a complete somatosensory testing, for all big mammals
• Prior to surgery : Adjustment of anesthetic methods to the animal's sensitivity level
• Post-operative pain and wound sensitivity, ie ovariohysterectomy
• Rehabilitation practice: daily use as objective Pain release Evaluation
• Drug screening, especially Analgesics efficacy for Post-surgery and Anesthetics
• Chronic Pain, Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid Arthritis
• Musculoskeletal sensitivity, Orthopedic dysfunctions, ie. cruciate ligament rupture
• Abdominal Ventral , Pelvic, Visceral pain

Dedicated software

Bioseb's BIO-CIS Software for the Algometer for Big Mammals
BIO-CIS Software for our Algometer
An embedded statistical computation has been included in the electronic device. This is a very useful feature that has been very well received by researchers, especially when a large number of tests is required. The display shows in real time the mean, standard deviation and variation coefficient from groups of animals.

The optional BIO-CIS software sends data acquired via the Pressure Algometer into an MS Excel spreadsheet using the RS232 port and USB converter. Easy to set up, this software interface also allows the display of the applied force vs. time for different trials, which is a useful function for the technician training (repeatability improvement).

Supplied with

• 1 Force-gauge display
• 1 handle
• 3 stimulator tips
• 1 power adaptor (110-220 V)
• User Manual
• Delivered in its smart suitcase
Optional: BIO-CIS Software


Publications (Click on an article to show details and read the abstract)

PAIN
- General pain -
Pet Dogs with Subclinical Acute Radiodermatitis Experience Widespread Somatosensory Sensitization (2019)
Pet Dogs with Subclinical Acute Radiodermatitis Experience Widespread Somatosensory Sensitization
MW Nolan, KL Kelsey, M Enomoto, H Ru, TL Gieger
Departments of Translational Research in Pain, Comparative Pain Research and Education Centre, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Clinical Sciences, 1052 William Moore Drive; Raleigh, NC
Published in "Radiation Research" (2019-12-26)

Radiation-induced dermatitis (RID) is a common and painful complication of radiotherapy. When severe, radiation-associated pain (RAP) can reduce the efficacy of radiotherapy by limiting the radiation dose given, and/or necessitating breaks in treatment. Current RAP mitigation strategies are of limited efficacy. Our long-term goal is to develop a comparative oncology model, in which novel analgesic interventions for RAP can be evaluated. The aim of this study was to validate quantitative end points indicative of RAP in pet dogs with subclinical and low-grade RID. Extremity soft tissue sarcomas were treated with post-operative irradiation (54 Gy in 18 fractions). Visual toxicity scores, questionnaire-based pain instruments and objective algometry [mechanical quantitative sensory testing (mQST)], were evaluated regularly. Breed-matched control populations were also evaluated to address the effect of potential confounders. Skin biopsies from within the irradiated field were collected at baseline and after 24 Gy irradiation, for analysis of pain-related genes using the nanoString Counter platform. Relative to control populations, mechanical thresholds decreased in irradiated test subjects as the total radiation dose increased, with the most pronounced effect at the irradiated site. This was accompanied by increased mRNA expression of GFRalpha3, TNFalpha, TRPV2 and TRPV4. In a separate set of dogs with moderate-to-severe RID, serum concentrations of artemin (the ligand for GFRalpha3) were elevated relative to controls (P = 0.015). Progressive reduction in mechanical thresholds, both locally and remotely, indicates widespread somatosensory sensitization during radiation treatment. mQST in pet dogs undergoing radiation treatment represents an innovative tool for preclinical evaluation of novel analgesics.

Feasibility and repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in normal dogs (2013)
Feasibility and repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in normal dogs
Jessica D. Briley, Morika D. Williams, Mila Freire, Emily H. Griffith, B. Duncan X. Lascelles
ollege of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
Published in "The Veterinary Journal" (2013-10-19)

Feasibility and inter-session repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing (QST) were assessed in 24 normal dogs. Cold thermal latencies were evaluated using a thermal probe (0 °C) applied to three pelvic limb sites. Mechanical thresholds were measured using an electronic von Frey anesthesiom- eter (EVF) and a blunt-probed pressure algometer (PA) applied to the dorsal aspect of the metatarsus. All QST trials were performed with dogs in lateral recumbency. Collection of cold QST data was easy (feasible) in 19/24 (79%) dogs. However, only 18.4%, 18.9% and 13.2% of cold QST trials elicited a response at the medial tibia, third digital pad and plantar metatarsal regions, respectively. Collection of mechanical QST data was easy (feasible) in 20/24 (83%) dogs for both EVF and PA. At consecutive sampling times, approximately 2 weeks apart, the average EVF sensory thresholds were 414 ± 186 g and 379 ± 166 g, respectively, and the average PA sensory thresholds were 1089 ± 414 g and 1028 ± 331 g, respectively. There was no significant difference in inter-session or inter-limb threshold values for either mechanical QST device. The cold QST protocol in this study was achievable, but did not provide consistently quantifiable results. Both mechanical QST devices tested provided repeatable, reliable sensory threshold measurements in normal, client-owned dogs. These findings contribute to the validation of the EVF and PA as tools to obtain repeated QST data over time in dogs to assess somato- sensory processing changes.

- Abdominal, ovaro-pelvic and endometriosis-related pain -
formulation and carprofen for extended post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (2015)
formulation and carprofen for extended post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy
Karin Kalchofner, Andrea Schwarz, Sonja Hartnack, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger
St. George's University and University of Zurich
Published in "The Veterinary Journal" (2015-04-01)

A newly developed slow-release tablet formulation of metamizole was compared with carprofen for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Twenty-three dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups, and administered 50 mg/kg metamizole PO (Group M) or 4 mg/kg carprofen PO (Group C) 1 h before anaesthetic induction and 24 and 48 h later. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane and fentanyl, after premedication with 0.005 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.3 mg/kg methadone IM. A blinded observer assessed post-operative sedation, and analgesia using a visual analogue scale, a dynamic interactive visual analogue scale, the Glasgow composite pain scale (GCPS), and a mechanical nociceptive threshold device (T = 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 21, 24, 36, 45, 60 and 70 h after surgery). Rescue methadone was administered if the GCPS was >6/24 in ambulatory dogs, or >5/20 innon-ambulatory dogs. Plasma concentrations of test drugs were quantified. The dose range for metamizole was 39–56 mg/kg. At T = 0.5 h sedation scores were significantly higher in Group C and GCPS scores were significantly higher in Group M. Three dogs required rescue methadone (Group M, n = 1; Group C, n = 2). Vomiting occurred post-operatively in 45% of dogs in Group M.Carprofen and metamizole were both well absorbed; peak concentrations occurred within 4–24 h, and 4–16 h for carprofen and metamizole, respectively. Both drugs provided adequate analgesia of similar duration. No side effects were observed with carprofen while vomiting was frequent following administration of metamizole.

Efficacy of tolfenamic acid and meloxicam in the control of postoperative pain following ovariohysterectomy in the cat (2008)
Efficacy of tolfenamic acid and meloxicam in the control of postoperative pain following ovariohysterectomy in the cat
Benito-de-la-Víbora J, Lascelles BD, García-Fernández P, Freire M, de Segura IA
Department of Animal Surgery and Medicine, Veterinary Faculty, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Published in "Vet Anaesth Analg." (2008-11-30)

OBJECTIVE:
The hypothesis was that Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores would be lower, and mechanical wound thresholds (MWT) higher, in cats receiving tolfenamic acid compared to those receiving placebo in the postoperative period following elective ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS:
Sixty-nine client-owned cats.

METHODS:
A prospective, randomized, blinded and placebo-controlled study was performed in cats which underwent ovariohysterectomy following preoperative tolfenamic acid, meloxicam, or placebo. A second dose of the same analgesic was administered 24 hours postoperatively. Assessments were made 1-hour before induction and 1, 2, 4, 6, 22, and 25 hours postoperatively. Pain was assessed by a blinded observer using Numerical Rating (NRS) and VAS scales. The MWT were measured using a force-measuring device. Group comparison was performed by using one-way ANOVA and chi-squared test for qualitative and quantitative data, respectively, and a mixed model for repeated measurements (p < 0.05).

RESULTS:
Sixty-five cats were included in the study. There were no differences between groups at baseline. There was a treatment effect on the NRS scores at 6, 22 and 25 hours. The meloxicam group was less painful than controls at 6 and 22 hours; both treatment groups were less painful than controls at 25 hours. There were no differences between groups in VAS for pain or sedation. The number of animals receiving rescue analgesia did not differ between groups. There was a treatment effect on MWT; thresholds in both treatment groups were significantly higher than that observed in controls at all time points.

CONCLUSIONS:
Preoperative tolfenamic acid or meloxicam reduced wound sensitivity following ovariohysterectomy in the cat.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE:
Tolfenamic acid and meloxicam administered preoperatively provided a similar analgesic effect in the postoperative period lasting 24 hours. Mechanical thresholds may be a better way of evaluating postoperative analgesia provided by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cats.

- Postoperative pain -
formulation and carprofen for extended post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (2015)
formulation and carprofen for extended post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy
Karin Kalchofner, Andrea Schwarz, Sonja Hartnack, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger
St. George's University and University of Zurich
Published in "The Veterinary Journal" (2015-04-01)

A newly developed slow-release tablet formulation of metamizole was compared with carprofen for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Twenty-three dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups, and administered 50 mg/kg metamizole PO (Group M) or 4 mg/kg carprofen PO (Group C) 1 h before anaesthetic induction and 24 and 48 h later. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane and fentanyl, after premedication with 0.005 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.3 mg/kg methadone IM. A blinded observer assessed post-operative sedation, and analgesia using a visual analogue scale, a dynamic interactive visual analogue scale, the Glasgow composite pain scale (GCPS), and a mechanical nociceptive threshold device (T = 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 21, 24, 36, 45, 60 and 70 h after surgery). Rescue methadone was administered if the GCPS was >6/24 in ambulatory dogs, or >5/20 innon-ambulatory dogs. Plasma concentrations of test drugs were quantified. The dose range for metamizole was 39–56 mg/kg. At T = 0.5 h sedation scores were significantly higher in Group C and GCPS scores were significantly higher in Group M. Three dogs required rescue methadone (Group M, n = 1; Group C, n = 2). Vomiting occurred post-operatively in 45% of dogs in Group M.Carprofen and metamizole were both well absorbed; peak concentrations occurred within 4–24 h, and 4–16 h for carprofen and metamizole, respectively. Both drugs provided adequate analgesia of similar duration. No side effects were observed with carprofen while vomiting was frequent following administration of metamizole.

Efficacy of tolfenamic acid and meloxicam in the control of postoperative pain following ovariohysterectomy in the cat (2008)
Efficacy of tolfenamic acid and meloxicam in the control of postoperative pain following ovariohysterectomy in the cat
Benito-de-la-Víbora J, Lascelles BD, García-Fernández P, Freire M, de Segura IA
Department of Animal Surgery and Medicine, Veterinary Faculty, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Published in "Vet Anaesth Analg." (2008-11-30)

OBJECTIVE:
The hypothesis was that Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores would be lower, and mechanical wound thresholds (MWT) higher, in cats receiving tolfenamic acid compared to those receiving placebo in the postoperative period following elective ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS:
Sixty-nine client-owned cats.

METHODS:
A prospective, randomized, blinded and placebo-controlled study was performed in cats which underwent ovariohysterectomy following preoperative tolfenamic acid, meloxicam, or placebo. A second dose of the same analgesic was administered 24 hours postoperatively. Assessments were made 1-hour before induction and 1, 2, 4, 6, 22, and 25 hours postoperatively. Pain was assessed by a blinded observer using Numerical Rating (NRS) and VAS scales. The MWT were measured using a force-measuring device. Group comparison was performed by using one-way ANOVA and chi-squared test for qualitative and quantitative data, respectively, and a mixed model for repeated measurements (p < 0.05).

RESULTS:
Sixty-five cats were included in the study. There were no differences between groups at baseline. There was a treatment effect on the NRS scores at 6, 22 and 25 hours. The meloxicam group was less painful than controls at 6 and 22 hours; both treatment groups were less painful than controls at 25 hours. There were no differences between groups in VAS for pain or sedation. The number of animals receiving rescue analgesia did not differ between groups. There was a treatment effect on MWT; thresholds in both treatment groups were significantly higher than that observed in controls at all time points.

CONCLUSIONS:
Preoperative tolfenamic acid or meloxicam reduced wound sensitivity following ovariohysterectomy in the cat.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE:
Tolfenamic acid and meloxicam administered preoperatively provided a similar analgesic effect in the postoperative period lasting 24 hours. Mechanical thresholds may be a better way of evaluating postoperative analgesia provided by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cats.



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Sensor Capacity 0 – 5 kg (50N)
Accuracy 0,1 % of full scale
Resolution 0,1 g
Sampling frequency 1000 Hz
Data output RS232 for computer, analog output for graphic recorders
Internal Memory 100 individual values
Overall dimensions 178x85x151 without probe
Power Supply Power adaptor (110-220 V) or battery
Stimulator Probes Steel, Round, flat, application surface 314 sq.mm
Steel, Round, flat, application surface 7 sq.mm
Plastic, sharp tip
Crating 33x30x13 cm – 4 kg
Special models For rat and mice, see BIO-SMALGO
Options Calibration Certificate
BIO-CIS Software with curve display
Statistical printer

Model:
BIO-VETALGO
Vetalgo: Algometer for Big Mammals
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Accessories :
BIO-CIS
Bioseb CIS Software
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