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VON FREY FILAMENTS
(Model: Bio-VF-M)
A set of 20 monofilaments based on the Semmes Weinstein monofilament set - featuring retractable filaments to protect the filament and allow the investigator to carry a few around in a pocket

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! NEW RESEARCH WORK ! A recent publication by L. L贸pez_G贸mez S. D铆az_Ruano R. Gir贸n A. E. L贸pez_P茅rez G. Vera E. Herrad贸n Pliego V. L贸pez_Miranda K. Nurgali M. I. Mart铆n_Fontelles J. A. Uranga R. Abalo in "Neurogastroenterology & Motility" highlights the merits of using Bioseb's Von Frey Filaments: Preclinical evaluation of the effects on the gastrointestinal tract of the antineoplastic drug vincristine repeatedly administered to rats

Preclinical evaluation of the effects on the gastrointestinal tract of the antineoplastic drug vincristine repeatedly administered to rats
L. L贸pez_G贸mez S. D铆az_Ruano R. Gir贸n A. E. L贸pez_P茅rez G. Vera E. Herrad贸n Pliego V. L贸pez_Miranda K. Nurgali M. I. Mart铆n_Fontelles J. A. Uranga R. Abalo
脕rea de Histolog铆a Humana y Anatom铆a Patol贸gica, Departamento de Ciencias B谩sicas de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorc贸n, Spain
Published in "Neurogastroenterology & Motility" (2018-07-04)


Background Vincristine is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. It is associated with undesirable digestive side effects. However, the impact of vincristine on gastrointestinal structure and motility or its long_term effects have not been deeply studied in animal models. This could be useful in order to develop therapeutic or preventive strategies for cancer patients. The aim of this study was to analyze such effects.
Methods Rats received saline or vincristine (0.1 mg kg_1, ip) daily for 10 days. Evaluations were performed during treatment and 2_6 weeks after. Somatic mechano_sensitivity was assessed using von Frey hairs. Gastrointestinal motor function was studied by means of radiographic still images and colonic propulsion of fecal pellets using fluoroscopy videos. Histological assessment of the gut morphology and immunohistochemistry for HuC/D and nNOS were performed in whole_mount myenteric plexus preparations.
Key Results Peripheral sensitivity was increased in animals treated with vincristine and did not subside 2 weeks after treatment finalization. Vincristine treatment inhibited gastrointestinal motility although this was recovered to normal values with time. Damage in the digestive wall after vincristine treatment was greater in the ileum than in the colon. Villi shortening (in ileum) and large inflammatory nodules still remained 2 weeks after treatment finalization. Finally, the proportion of nNOS_immunoreactive neurons was increased with vincristine and continued to be increased 2 weeks after treatment finalization.
Conclusions and Inferences Vincristine alters gastrointestinal motility, peripheral sensitivity and mucosal architecture. Vincristine_induced neuropathy (somatic and enteric), intestinal mucosa damage and inflammatory infiltrations are relatively long_lasting.
This set of 20 monofilaments is based on the Semmes Weinstein monofilament set, but now features retractable filaments to protect the filament and allow the investigator to carry a few around in a pocket.

The Semmes Weinstein set of monofilaments provide an approximately logarithmic scale of actual force, and a linear scale of perceived intensity. They have a long history of effective use in clinical settings, and can be used to diagnose pathologies of hyper- or hypo-aesthesia. Subsets within the set of 20 probes distinguish pathologies on different parts of the body (foot, hand, lip, cheek, etc.).

The operating principle remains the same: when the tip of a fiber of given length and diameter is pressed against the skin at right angles, the force of application increases as long as the researcher continues to advance the probe, until the fiber bends. After the fiber bends, continued advance creates more bend, but not more force of application. This principle makes it possible for the researcher using a hand held probe to apply a reproducible force, within a wide tolerance, to the skin surface.

Size 1,652,362,442,833,223,613,844,08 4,174,314,564,744,935,075,185,46 5,886,16,456,65
Force (g) 0,0080,020,040,070,160,40,61 1,42468101526 60100180300

Rodents exhibit a paw withdrawal reflex when the paw is unexpectedly touched. The Touch Test Sensory Evaluator can be used on the Plantar surfaces of the foot of a rat or mouse, and the animal will indicate sensation by pulling back its paw. Replacement filaments available.

Attention : Because of the physical properties of the material making up the filaments it's recommended to work at temperature between 18癈 an 24癈 and hygrometry between 60 and 80 %, for a better reliability of the results.

Publications (Click on an article to show details and read the abstract)

PAIN
- General pain -
Genetic ablation of GINIP-expressing primary sensory neurons strongly impairs Formalin-evoked pain. (2017)
Genetic ablation of GINIP-expressing primary sensory neurons strongly impairs Formalin-evoked pain.
Urien L, Gaillard S, Lo Re L, Malapert P, Bohic M, Reynders A, Moqrich A
"Aix-Marseille-Universit, Institut de Biologie du D関eloppement de Marseille, Marseille, France "
Published in "Scientific Reports" (2017-02-17)

Primary sensory neurons are heterogeneous by myriad of molecular criteria. However, the functional significance of this remarkable heterogeneity is just emerging. We precedently described the GINIP(+) neurons as a new subpopulation of non peptidergic C-fibers encompassing the free nerve ending cutaneous MRGPRD(+) neurons and C-LTMRs. Using our recently generated ginip mouse model, we have been able to selectively ablate the GINIP(+) neurons and assess their functional role in the somatosensation. We found that ablation of GINIP(+) neurons affected neither the molecular contents nor the central projections of the spared neurons. GINIP-DTR mice exhibited impaired sensation to gentle mechanical stimuli applied to their hairy skin and had normal responses to noxious mechanical stimuli applied to their glabrous skin, under acute and injury-induced conditions. Importantly, loss of GINIP(+) neurons significantly altered formalin-evoked first pain and drastically suppressed the second pain response. Given that MRGPRD(+) neurons have been shown to be dispensable for formalin-evoked pain, our study suggest that C-LTMRs play a critical role in the modulation of formalin-evoked pain.

- Mechanical allodynia & hyperlagesia -
Intravenous Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Administration Can Attenuate Neuropathic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury in Male Rats (2018)
Intravenous Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Administration Can Attenuate Neuropathic Pain Following Spinal Cord Injury in Male Rats
L Farsi, M Keshavarz, K Afshari, AN Javidan
Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Published in "Acta Medica Iranica" (2018-05-09)

Peripheral neuropathy, regularly expressed as hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, is between the most common complications of spinal cord injury (SCI) that develops in up to 40% of patients and appears to be persistent. Previous studies have demonstrated neuroprotective effects of Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on neuropathic pains. We aimed to investigate the antihyperalgesic effect of G-CSF on neuropathic pains following SCI in male rats. Twenty four adult male rats (weight 300350g) were used. After laminectomy, complete SCI was performed by compression of the spinal cord for 1 minute with an aneurysm clip. Within 30 minutes after the surgery, 200 _g/kg G-CSF was injected intravenously in G-CSF treated groups and then was repeated in 3 consecutive days. Tail flick latency (TFL), acetone drop test scores, BBB test scores, and Von-Frey filament test were performed before surgery and once a week after surgery. Rats in G-CSF treated group showed significantly higher mean TFL, and lower mean score of acetone test compared with those in SCI+veh group 4 weeks after surgery (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between rats in G-CSF treated group and SCI+veh group in BBB and Von-Frey filament tests results. These findings revealed that treatment with systemic administration of intravenous G-CSF would attenuate thermal hyperalgesia, and cold allodynia induced by SCI in rats but has no significant effect on locomotor activity and mechanical allodynia after SCI.

CNS myeloid cells critically regulate heat hyperalgesia (2018)
CNS myeloid cells critically regulate heat hyperalgesia
S Kalin, KR Miller, RE. Kalin, M Jendrach, C Witzel, FL Heppner
Department of Neuropathology, Charite_platz, Berlin, Germany
Published in "The Journal of Clinical Investigation " (2018-03-27)

Activation of non-neuronal microglia is thought to play a causal role in spinal processing of neuropathic pain. To specifically investigate microglia-mediated effects in a model of neuropathic pain and overcome the methodological limitationsof previous approaches exploring microglia function upon nerve injury, we selectively ablated resident microglia by intracerebroventricular ganciclovir infusion into male CD11b-HSVTK杢ransgenic mice, which was followed by a rapid, complete, and persistent (23 weeks) repopulation of the CNS by peripheral myeloid cells. In repopulated mice that underwent sciatic nerve injury, we observed a normal response to mechanical stimuli, but an absence of thermal hypersensitivity ipsilateralto the injured nerve. Furthermore, we found that neuronal expression of calcitonin gene杛elated peptide (CGRP), which isa marker of neurons essential for heat responses, was diminished in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in repopulated mice. These findings identify distinct mechanisms for heat and mechanical hypersensitivity and highlight a crucial contribution of CNS myeloid cells in the facilitation of noxious heat.

Effects of transdermal lidocaine or lidocaine with prilocaine or tetracaine on mechanical superficial sensation and nociceptive thermal thresholds in horses. (2017)
Effects of transdermal lidocaine or lidocaine with prilocaine or tetracaine on mechanical superficial sensation and nociceptive thermal thresholds in horses.
FJ S鯾beler, SBR K鋝tne
Clinic for Small Animals, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany
Published in "Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia" (2017-12-02)

Objective:To evaluate the transdermal local anaesthetic effect of lidocaine or lidocaine combined with prilocaine or tetracaine in horses.
Animals:A total of five healthy adult warmblood horses.
Methods:Horses were clipped bilaterally at the withers, cranial saddle area and caudal saddle area. Baseline measurements for mechanical superficial sensation via von Frey filaments and nociceptive thermal thresholds were performed. A 5% lidocaine patch (12 hour exposure, treatment L), a lidocaine/prilocaine cream (each 2.5%, treatment LP) and a lidocaine/tetracaine cream (each 7%, treatment LT) were applied (both 2 hour exposure). The same product was applied at the same location bilaterally, but on the right side an epidermal micro-perforation (dermaroller, 1200 needles) was performed prior to application. A total of five more measurements were performed at each location, immediately at the end of exposure time followed by hourly measurements. Thermal thresholds normalized to thermal excursion were analysed. One- or two-way anova and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis with p<0.05 considered significant.
Results:Epidermal micro-perforation had no enhancing effect. Treatments L, LP, and LT resulted in increased thermal excursion (%) immediately (84.7牨12.9; 100.0牨0.0; 100.0牨0.0) and 1 hour (81.7牨66; 86.0牨17.7; 87.7牨14.4) after the removal of the respective product compared to baseline (66.1牨9.3; 69.9牨8.3; 76.5牨7.8). Superficial mechanical sensation was decreased by the lidocaine-and-tetracaine cream at all time points, and by the lidocaine patch and lidocaine-and-prilocaine cream for three measurements.
Conclusions and clinical relevance:Eutectic mixtures of lidocaine with either prilocaine or tetracaine led to a reduction in thermal nociception and mechanical sensation for up to 2 hours.

Low-dose buprenorphine infusion to prevent postoperative hyperalgesia in patients undergoing major lung surgery and remifentanil infusion: a double-blind, randomized, active-controlled trial (2017)
Low-dose buprenorphine infusion to prevent postoperative hyperalgesia in patients undergoing major lung surgery and remifentanil infusion: a double-blind, randomized, active-controlled trial
M. Mercieri, S. Palmisani, R. A. De Blasi, A. D'Andrilli, A. Naccarato, B. Silvestri, S. Tigano, D. Massullo, M. Rocco, R. Arcioni
Department of Medical and Surgical Science and Translational Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome and Pain Therapy Unit, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy
Published in "British Journal of Anaesthesia " (2017-10-01)

Background
Postoperative secondary hyperalgesia arises from central sensitization due to pain pathways facilitation and/or acute opioid exposure. The latter is also known as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Remifentanil, a potent ?-opioid agonist, reportedly induces postoperative hyperalgesia and increases postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption. The pathophysiology underlying secondary hyperalgesia involves N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated pain pathways. In this study, we investigated whether perioperatively infusing low-dose buprenorphine, an opioid with anti-NMDA activity, in patients receiving remifentanil infusion prevents postoperative secondary hyperalgesia.

Methods
Sixty-four patients, undergoing remifentanil infusion during general anaesthesia and major lung surgery, were randomly assigned to receive either buprenorphine i.v. infusion (25??g h?1for 24?h) or morphine (equianalgesic dose) perioperatively. The presence and extent of punctuate hyperalgesia were assessed one day postoperatively. Secondary outcome variables included postoperative pain scores, opioid consumption and postoperative neuropathic pain assessed one and three months postoperatively.

Results
A distinct area of hyperalgesia or allodynia around the surgical incision was found in more patients in the control group than in the treated group. Mean time from extubation to first morphine rescue dose was twice as long in the buprenorphine-treated group than in the morphine-treated group: 18爒s9?min (P=0.002). At 30?min postoperatively, patients receiving morphine had a higher hazard ratio for the first analgesic rescue dose than those treated with buprenorphine (P=0.009). At three months, no differences between groups were noted.

Conclusions
Low-dose buprenorphine infusion prevents the development of secondary hyperalgesia around the surgical incision but shows no long-term efficacy at three months follow-up.

Effects of transdermal lidocaine or lidocaine with prilocaine or tetracaine on mechanical superficial sensation and nociceptive thermal thresholds in horses (2017)
Effects of transdermal lidocaine or lidocaine with prilocaine or tetracaine on mechanical superficial sensation and nociceptive thermal thresholds in horses
F J Sobbeler, S BR Kastner
Clinic for Small Animals, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Hannover, German
Published in "Verterinary Anaesthesia and Angelgelsia" (2017-09-15)

Publication evaluate the transdermal local anaesthetic effect of lidocaine or lidocaine combined with prilocaine or tetracaine in horses.




Model:
Bio-VF-M
Von Frey Filaments
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